Introduction to
the Ka Method


Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec and Library
and Archives Canada cataloguing in publication

Segla, Arnaud, 1978-a
Introduction to Ka Method
Translation of: Introduction à la Méthode Ka
Includes bibliographical references
ISBN KDP:9781790647057

1. Small business – Management. 2. Informal sector (Economics).
I. Wisemen Council. II. Title.

Legal deposit
Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, 2017
Bibliothèque et Archives Canada, 2017

Book and cover design: ASSOUKA
Photo de la couverture : © Brad Pict



Sommaire 3
Introduction 5
Bibliography and references 31
Photo credit 32

In the name of God, The Judge, The Wise.

Eco animism?

The Ka method gives a soul back to a company and impersonates it while creating the conditions necessary for the development and fulfillment of the company and its people. This is a new vision of business.

The purpose of this method is to establish the performance necessary for acquisition of wealth and creation of value by definition of lean intention in the attitude. This type of wealth means the goods necessary for non-impediment of its spiritual development and the renewal of the feeling of Pride. Eco Animism is an informal, simple, supportive approach of economics that leads to a positive way of doing business.
The economy by animism and spirituality.

Chaque Homme est important
aux yeux de Dieu.


Ka method is designed to habilitate the ethnic entrepreneur and the entrepreneur in the informal economy to better fight, and not just failing to cope with emergencies, in a globalized economy. It draws its essence from the traditional forms of expression related to animism. Economic actors can thus learn from their own spirituality to develop strategies, tactics, and actions to run their business. The method offers an alternative to the pitfalls due to difficulty of assimilating concepts from economic models of thinking
away from the cultural realities of their own.

In an article on Vitraulle Mboungou remembers that Africa is full of many informal jobs. In the first decade of the 2000s this sector provided 72% of jobs in subSaharan Africa and was responsible for more than 93% of new jobs created, compared to the performance of the formal sector which employs only about 10% of potential workers on the continent. Many Africans actually live in this economy that is especially prevalent among the poorer classes (professional or casual workers in employment expectations) in sectors such as fishing, small trade, handicrafts, etc. These are very often trade for survival.

Today many African states are backed by the African Union seeking to integrate these workers into the formal economy with the aim of enabling them, among other things, to enjoy the benefits of social protection and to support growth, economic, and social development across the continent.

The traditional and one-dimensional purpose of a business in the classical market economy is to maximize profits and create value. A new approach may be to consider each business and ethnic enterprise as a human entity whose ultimate goal is fulfillment through activities they have chosen to practice. This generates fiscal and accounting activities considered by investors. This also involves achieving multidimensional

economic, ethical, social, environmental, and spiritual goals. Such companies are born as humans with a dream, a destiny, or a vision whose mission is eventually to take into account all aspects of future development of the initiated activity. This model is particularly suited for ethnic entrepreneurship and the informal economy that implies individual companies but can also serve as an alternative or adaptive model for the business engaging in social and environmental responsibility.


The Ka method was launched in 2010, one year after the creation of THE WISEMEN COUNCIL. The original idea was to establish a competitive advantage in the consulting services market in project management and to develop a framework for its evolution into a Think Tank model in the long term.

As a result of the attempts to conceptualize and research a clear direction was given to the informal economy and ethnic entrepreneurship. Dissatisfaction with economic models that guide globalized exchanges, including the impact of recurring financial crises, has led to focus on the endogenous capacity of the poor to actively participate in the global economy.

The observation of criteria to rehabilitate the contribution of the black civilization has also led to enlightening of the strength of human potential in trade in third world countries. Informal trade and spiritual traditions have emerged as essential to building a sound foundation for an economic thinking model close to economically active population and ethnic entrepreneurs who represent the elite and the satellite. The method does not suit for being limited to the movement of social economy, but offers another way to operate in large companies where culture can be of considerable benefit. The cultures of the African people contain enough examples on which to base creating economic structures by avoiding importing others whose operating subtleties are often far from the realities of the user. We urgently need to agree on working to help in overcoming the threat of invasion and economic alienation. We must equally address the vice that is established in the faith through nobility of moral, moral integrity, and pride in the attitude of recreating conditions to benefit from our wealth. The Ka is a name inspired by the Egyptians and serves as the foundation for most dialects on the continent. This pooling of the ancient meaning of a word gives universality to a concept taken from the history of a continent characterized by its cultural diversity. The vision is that a company is the reflection of the Entrepreneur and will seek economic fulfilment as well as multidimensional human beings whose vocation is to live for full realization of its destiny.

The symbol of Ka stems from the meaning of this word in the tradition of the people of Benin where it means calabash. This is one of the objects selected to illustrate the economic structures created from the method. This is a ripening fruit and provides a container which in some cultures collects the products to be shared. Based on this model an entrepreneur can associate himself to create a business synergy resistant to financial crises with the aim of sharing wealth. The calabash tree carries all ripening Kas. The sap of the tree waters the Kas. Each Ka matures at different times. All the Kas belong to the tree.

Ka (Ka)
Apparence: In art the Ka was depicted in several ways: a person identical to the person with whom he was associated, like a shadow, a person with two arms raised over his head. The hieroglyph for Ka is shoulders and arms bent upward in the elbows.

Meaning: The “Ka” is a very complex symbolism in ancient Egyptian mythology and represents many things: the Ka is a symbol of receipt of the powers of every man’s life from the gods. It is the source of these powers and the spiritual being who lives with every man.

Ka as the spiritual being is born with every man and lives on after his death as he had a place to live. The Ka lived in the body of the individual and therefore needed the body after death. That is why the Egyptians mummified their dead. If the body decomposed, their spiritual double would die and the dead would lose their chance of eternal life. The Egyptian euphemism for death was “going to his Ka.” After death the Ka became supreme. Thus it was said that the Kings had multiple Kas. Ramses II announced that he had over 20.
The ka was more than that though. When the ka prevailed, all went well both spiritually and materially. Sin was called “an abomination of the Ka”.
The Ka could also be seen as the conscience or guide for each individual, urging goodness, peace, honor, and compassion. Represented in pictures and statues Kas are portrayed as the owner in an idealized state of youth, vigor, and beauty. The Ka is the source and giver of all that the Egyptians considered desirable, especially eternal life.
The Kas also resided in the gods. The Egyptians often appeased the gods’ kas to receive favors. The divine kas were also used as guards. Osiris was often called the Ka of the pyramids.

Khnemu, the god who is said to have created every man of clay on his potter’s wheel, has also molded the ka at the same time.

Extract from the glossary


The guiding principe

«Faith is our force and our drive.»

The faith in our economic commitment unites our forces under the hand of Providence.

Believe – Federate – Prosper – Share

The company has a soul which is the common double of economic actors who founded it. The company has a collective Ka.

The Ka must be fed to continue to live. The most appropriate form of the initiative that is supposed to give substance to the Ka is operation through projects or services in limited duration.

Animism, the belief of the soul, in Africa has diversity of practice and name. It is often performed in accordance with a monotheistic religion. The common source to which we reported to bring together certain concepts is the root of traditional spiritualities of the continent. It allows each region to adapt the terminology and concepts to their own reality while having equivalence with other business models.


With globalization of the economy many people are forced to compete on international markets. It introduces a form of generalized peaceful conflict where only commercial affirmation can maintain freedom and grow one culture in the concert of nations. The hegemony has often been the goal, but here it rather leaves room for a strategy of self-protection.

The irrevocable founding principle of the Ka is the oneness of God. However, there are multiple ways to find out. Tolerance is an encouraged virtue.

The past Negro Egyptian civilization provides building blocks for the identities of ethnic and informal entrepreneurs.

The Negro civilization was the first to have influenced humanity and knowledge. This human society attached to the earth and spirituality born in Africa can be a legacy to serve the economic development of countries lost in the tumult of models based on profit and materialism.

The contemporary black civilization remnant of ancient Egypt can be classified in this civilization of humans in that it preserves the relationship of humanity with its natural environment the Soul and its manifestations. This is a force that has long been pointed out and justified the inaction and lack of initiative from populations and economic actors.

A new society and identity in line with the potential of communities and their ability to create wealth and strength of affirmation in the world concert is possible. Animism had been able to respect both nature and the soul, and with the introduction of the monotheistic religions also the move towards unifying all spiritual worship realities in a single omnipotent and omniscient deity.

The current strength of this civilization can be expressed in business and organizational models without being dictated. Elites (influential local active persons), satellites (investing Diaspora active persons), and amethyst (potentially active persons in the storm) can be the basis of an economic phenomenon : a real revolution in habits thanks to the spirit, knowledge, and skills gained in expatriate or locally.

Only faith and willingness to change the actual course of events leads to definition of collective solutions for the greater good of the continent and, in broader horizon, for people with similar challenges.

Depending on the experience and profile of the Ka, several degrees of maturity of the Ka to its mandate can be described :

Novice – Discover, learn.

Neutre – abstain, doubt.

Initié – acknowledge, involve.

Rebel – denormalize, customize.

Soumis – agree to comply.

Croyant – identify, contribute.

Saint – Achieve, create.

These states can also be used to describe the status of members of the Ka or in characterizing the minimum method parameters (see the following Prosper part).


The Ka includes not only entrepreneurs who need to invest be and able to lead an initiative, but also practicing professionals providing guarantees of stability and expertise to the Ka and people wanting to regulate an activity by passing on their knowledge, etc. Professionals by their more stable situation may endorse or make loans from financial institutions that the Ka requires to operate activities. All are partner in the ka and belong to its pantheon.

We can define some key roles for a nominal Ka (highly recommended) as follows:

The investor
Attributes: wealth, prosperity, abundance.
It’s the stabilizer of the Ka and the main financial provider. It is internal to the Ka and offers an alternative to conventional funding agencies. It considers the risks of projects while being involved in operations. He or she provides micro-investment to support activities and can recover its capital and the revenue share at the end of a project.

The coordinator
Attributes: order, law, judgment.
The coordinator of activity ensures cohesion of the structure and operation, ensures that projects are appropriately managed, and will deliver their product in compliance with defined client quality criteria.

The accountant
Attributes: wisdom, write, measure.
The accountant, treasurer, and person in charge of financial management follows the budget for each project and the financial result of the group. He is responsible for accountability and ensures project performance.

The salesperson
Attributes: protective, welfare, births.
This is the person who deals with human relations, commercial and business development. He is the ambassador of the Ka and the main source of new contracts and customers of the Ka.

The seed
Attributes: child, vengeful, power.
It is over or the beneficiary projects ka. There may be more than one and the nature may vary over time. The seed is the recipient of reinvestment of Ka

The manager
Attributes: king, protector, judge.
This is the leader of the Ka. He makes management decisions on behalf of the Ka and reports on its activities. He is usually a full-time entrepreneur of the Ka.

The mentor
Attributes: father, hidden, essential.
This is the mentor of the Ka. He gives his considered opinion on the Strategy of the Ka and is a reference for other members including the manager.

These roles are interchangeable (tontine of role) depending on the project profile which is addressed or the situation or the availability of members. At the administrative statement, if necessary, minimal configuration is required.

Each actor makes his contribution according to his possibility for prosperity and growth of the Ka to generate wealth that will be fairly shared among members. Owing to difficulties to integrate the labour market the Ka is an opportunity to exercise a consistent role with its professional profile while one is forced to do basic jobs because of living duties. This experience can be highlighted once work is found or serve as a portfolio to seek jobs. This also applies to those waiting for a job and who resort to the informal sector in African countries. The Ka can employ people on a regular basis or use outsourcing to support operations or get supplement expertise for some projects. Members believe in the mission of the Ka and respect its essence.

Examples of combinations:

Federate: example of profiles Ka 1
Ethnic entrepreneurs Ka 2
investor Engineer and project manager Civil servant
coordinator Actuary working in a bank call center Unemployed docker
accountant Sales representative working in a bank call center Student of accounting science
salesperson Entrepreneur Translator working in a web agency
seed Student looking for a job Apprentice carpenter
manager Entrepreneur and project manager Graduated from business school working as motorcycle taxi
mentor Engineer and factory executive Sheikh


Meeting and blending inheritance is the new man with black blood full of flow formed by the black people and their Diaspora. He comes from many alliances and cultural reality of those forced to export their labour power in the wake of an economic model that only leaves them the option of following the turmoil of frenetic activity of other tenants of the planet. The black blood living with faith is often that of the worker economically suffocated by debt, mortgages, and other consumption loans that live in the dream of a better tomorrow. Several supporters and stakeholders who identify themselves as this new model are invited to contribute to building a civilization maintained across the seas, lands, and eras. The union of believing communities who face the challenge of development and affirmation promotes sharing from commercial and knowledge levels while respecting the choices of their identity and their relationship to faith.

This crowded culture with many free hands takes over in various activities that require the heart to work especially in the informal sector. They must fight against restricted areas where their excellence is unfairly challenged. A coherent dynamic is to be formed by rallying of people who relate themselves to spirituality and nature.

The pool of technology and monetary capabilities available to the Diaspora and supporters living in large cities of developed countries makes them an intrinsic force that, in addition to the potential of the people remained resident in their homeland, is a major asset of success through the model of Kas. It is necessary to build bridges or connections between the islands, urban blocks, and their mother land. The Ka can be converted and must be transmitted to persons able to sustain its challenges. It is important to pay particular attention to the seed. Thus the Ka can live under different wraps while maintaining belief in the deep founding principle: the company has a soul.

This contemporary civilization displaced and alienated, freeing itself with report to the Divine and the legacy of the origins, forms the core of still invisible majority of people whose unity and affirmation must allow recognizing the magnitude of the contribution to the Creation through their achievements in this life, through their Kas.

Animism is the form that serves as a cradle for religion and spirituality. The lack of belief does not prevent the identified members of the Ka from having universal values and especially believing or being inspired by the nature of the Ka. It is important to have at least belief or faith to develop a model strategy, tactics and operations to operate a Ka. “Faith is our strength” and the manager has to have an unshakable faith in the vision for the destiny of the Ka.

Looking at the ecological and unstable economic cycles, the growth forecasts are not immune to cyclical events that affect performance and financial awakening.

Financial market crises usually ruin our trust, opportunities, as well as favourable conditions to do business. We would have to reduce the periods of exercise over small intervals of stability or growth. Because of the temporary nature or sequential economic activity, the management by projects can be developed to support this new form of economy. The tools and methods of project management and entrepreneurship are to be transferred to members of the ka with constant assistance of those whose job it is. Project management science to its pure sense would be more an activity for those who would make changes in the body of knowledge or practice in other areas of socioeconomic activities. The Ka method is more a management by project framework.

All members of the Ka do not have the training to act in respect of project management science, but can learn to manage each contract as a project within the scope of the Ka’s business. Clients are different and implemented tools are customized. Each portfolio or client becomes a mine from which the revenue budget, time, size, strength, etc. are focused on the deliverable and on compliance with the economic environment of the Ka.

In the informal economy it is difficult to introduce concepts of management by projects. It is important to tailor the message to reality experienced by structures that want to adopt the model. The use of the concepts of spirituality, which are in the immediate vicinity of the economic actors, can lead to good understanding by target populations of entrepreneurs and professionals, and help to popularize the method.

The Ka method combines the parameters of project management with those of business engineering to create a meaningful and relevant synergy to increase efficiency in the market. The animist or spiritual equivalent allows everyone to think about strategy, tactics, and operations with concepts available to them. Here is the vocabulary for the minimum parameters of the Ka activity :

Client equivalent to “The initiator”, god or djinn.
It’s he or she who gives the mission to Ka and reveals the scope of the project (destiny).

The project scope equivalent to “Destiny”.
It makes the distinction between the project deliverable and Compensation (Paradise / afterworld) from the project duration (life).

Resources equivalent to “cults”.
These are all necessary resources to the project: human, material, financial, spiritual, etc. They need worship by prayers (efforts) to receive the prize (Paradise / afterworld).

Project duration equivalent to “life”.
This is the life (blood) duration of the project or service as desired by the client (initiator).

Compensation equivalent to “Paradise / afterworld”.
This defines the ultimate objective of the Ka for this project identification (destiny). Money is the vital force cumulated or Energy.

Opposition equivalent to “negative side”.
These are the forces that oppose the success of our project (life) and the compensation (paradise / afterworld). The competition is part of it.

Revenue sharing equivalent to “judgement”.
This is the reward according to effort and investment of all.

Far from debasing the spiritual concepts, the vocabulary created closeness to the terms of business engineering and project management. Everyone can adapt it to his language and use its economic practice to meditate on his own faith. Example of adaptation of a project by Ka type in Fon, the language of south Benin people:

Prosper: Exemple of projects Adaptation
in fon Ka 1
Ethnic Entrepreneur Ka 2
Client Fa Cardinal Bernandin Gatin airport in Cotonou African in the Diaspora
Project scope Sè Improvement of management process Network sale of traditional medicine product
Ressources Vodùn Consultants Tradipracticioner
Project duration Gbè 1 year First period of 5 years
Compensation Sèxwé ou Kou tomè Work revenue Sales
Opposition Lègba Canadian firm Chinese firm
Revenue sharing Kou Hour rates or flat rate Revenue


The projects are the best model for generating revenue through Ka. One of the practical challenges of Ka is sharing of revenues from the activity of Ka according to the resources committed by each member. It is necessary to ensure sustainable development of Ka by reinvesting earnings and fair remuneration of members for their prosperity. Competitiveness of Ka depends on investments made for its life and the ability to generate wealth. The first door open to sharing of wealth in the community is to be able to help a person or persons in integrating the Ka. This person is a seed.


The Ka method took over after reflection on world economic behaviour and the opportunities that can lead entrepreneurs to take advantage of its business in a responsible and environmentally friendly way. For this purpose, an economic attitude has been initiated and developed to allow a chance of success to the less fortunate players or give a management tool that can lead to the achievement of specific objectives in larger companies.

Regarding the potential of the African continent, several observations and proposals have emerged during our thinking: that it is advisable to unite the continent again around common values and associate its Diaspora. Without reaffirmed unity gradual disappearance of the culture will be through economic interaction and trade in a liberalized world. It is better to agree to contribute to the happiness if not to hegemony.

The initial attitudes that emerge serve as a starting point to a simple shift of paradigms in the challenges facing Africa in its development. These are our working principles. Continuous improvement of economic conditions is to promote based on the principles and success stories of other cultures that have realized the harmony between their life patterns and globalized trade. It has to be the alternative to pessimism and the continuing degradation of resources and nonrenewal of ideas. The first simple attitudes are:

1. Wealth is a tool for informal force

Do not be reluctant to generate wealth through entrepreneurship, informal initiative, and not just professional practice. Poverty must remain a mindset that allows the soul to accomplish. Strong economy must rely on each of its stakeholders including the informal sector whose dynamism and potential are to be seized and exploited. Beyond satisfaction of basic needs and existence of social safety net provided by the family and the divine Hand wealth is a weapon of affirmation and power to the economic structures and, beyond that, for countries themselves through their GDP or “Inc.”. The lean wealth.

2. To be united and together in the effort

Membership or involvement in duties of community life is facilitated by the perception of pleasure or interest that it bears. The vision of a necessary affirmation for preservation of a people encouraged its members to unite to succeed. The notion is of having an economic community with a native model join that of clusters, cooperatives, or other grouping of micro-businesses to facilitate access to the global economy. The lean unity.

Do not be reluctant to generate wealth through entrepreneurship, informal initiative and not just professional practice. Poverty must remain a mindset that allows the soul to accomplish. A strong economy must rely on each of its stakeholders including the informal sector whose dynamism
and potential are to be seized and exploited.

3. With less do better (less is more)

Creativity and innovation are weapons that differentiate successful companies from those whose business models are stuck on rigidities and difficulties in adapting to market changes. Limiting the use of resources to achieve the desired results and creating wealth drives innovation and helps maintain independence and autonomy from stakeholders in the exercise of economic decision made for the company. The lean need.

4. Competitive Partnering

There is no assertion of strength or endurance to refuse to be helped, but more shame to expose one weakness. The entrepreneurial network of contacts and the address book of partner companies allows opening the horizons in search of economic solutions. Powerful alliances between relevant and interzone economic profiles are to be leveraged to create competitive advantages winin the markets of global economy. The lean partnership.

5. Working ourselves against underdevelopment and precariousness

Self-affirmation involves taking risks and responsibilities towards the fate of the company. The perpetual state of being assisted leads to laziness and lack of initiative to redress adverse situations. Economic actors become managers of the aid they receive – often brought with intervention policies – without personal and sufficient involvement in finding sustainable balance. The ultimate goal is to reinvest the wealth produced in communities of references and initiative pools affected by insecurity and poverty to enable them to take an active role in the economy. The lean emancipation.

6. Being inspired by tradition, spirituality and life model to build adapted governance principles

Proximity to the concepts of governance of economic activity allow through strategy, tactics, and operations to enhance the performance of structures and their chances of affirmation on the world stage. The manager selects management principles that he is comfortable with and of which the interaction with realities of trade are relevant. Management should be made with concepts that we know best. The lean governance.

7. Passing the legacy of life to the next generation of managers

It is important to capitalize on the efforts of economic actors who work toward a growing community. The chain of human investment must remain sustainable in order to instill a sense of positive and progressive construction based on good or bad experiences. The flow of information guarantees adaptation to the changing realities of the economic sphere. The lean legacy.


The first implementation of the method is to encourage creation of a business form combining entrepreneurship and professional life. A group of actors of different origins and status create a structure according to the Ka method to achieve a socioeconomic goal on the principle of creating and sharing wealth. THE WISEMEN COUNCIL proposes to form the first Ka as a demonstrator of the
method and pilot structure.

Our vision as an agent of African economy and diversity in Western cities may be clear in our presentation of “Ka” interrelated that has the opportunity to be one of the most suitable to lead a struggle for economic growth and the affirmation of a responsible business attitude. As we have described, a Ka is a group of entrepreneurs federated together around an idea or project. It is a form of spheres of efficiency in the wake of clusters and cooperatives of a homogeneous economic area found primarily in the West.

The fight against poverty and for the economic development of the continent lies on two fronts: Cities in developed countries through dynamic ethnic enterprises and in mother nations are caught in a battle of supremacy and will fight soon not to liberate but to dominate. Entrepreneurs as good officers will lead their microstructures to grow sufficiently to be able to employ persons initially working in the informal sector. They will have a chance to leave the urban “necessities” in which they get trapped a little more each day.

It is important to acquire knowledge on tools, management methods, and strategies of economic microstructures for fight against poverty and for economic growth. The management approach to international alliances of microinitiatives grouped in Ka shows a real interest when combined with the economic concept of attitude (already described in the section on principles). The whole demonstrates a new way to position oneself in the business more responsibly and sustainably.

Some entrepreneurs may establish a Ka via their network of friends in whom they trust. The service sector, for example, is highly competitive and involves microstructures in trade or manufacture, helps balance the overall portfolio, and helps to absorb the market turmoil. As for alliances overseas, the possibilities are endless despite, sometimes, lack of visibility of the actors and their products.

Everyone has to gain from a change of ways of doing business. It is possible to do business with people with whom affinity is strong while keeping one independent decision. To follow this thought it is possible to include professionals, although employees dedicated to their employers, and enhance their desire to contribute to the economic growth or to do business. The idea must germinate and mature in time.

THE WISEMEN COUNCIL is the first Ka to serve as a model for community and economy.



Arnaud SEGLA is the consultant and the manager of THE COUNCIL WISEMEN.

He is a project management and business engineering professional who works in consulting, writing, and entrepreneurship. He draws his experience primarily from aeronautical engineering in France and project management in public services and industry in Canada. He is known for his sense of responsibility, creativity, versatility, and interpersonal skills. He is a definite asset in the construction of solution for projects to be implemented.

Arnaud SEGLA is a member of the Project Management Institute (PMI) and holds a Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM) certification. Besides the body of knowledge in project management he masters several areas of business management and aerospace and several tools for management.

He has many years of combined experience in project management in the aeronautics field (continuous improvement).

His present highest academic level is a Master’s degree:

Master in management and international business at the European Institute of Affairs in Paris, France.

Master of business administration at the University Montesquieu Bordeaux IV. (Certificate in Business Administration) in Bordeaux, France.

Master of Pure and Applied Sciences at the Institute of Aeronautical Maintenance. (Master and master as an engineer in Industrial Systems Engineering) in Bordeaux, France.

His latest is a graduation Certificate in project management from HEC Montreal, Canada.

THE WISEMEN COUNCIL (le conseil des sages) is a Sole Proprietorship, registered in Quebec under number NEQ2266075888 by Arnaud SEGLA. The simplicity of this legal form is suitable for the starting phase of the activity and the method validation project.

Bibliography and references

1. Vers un nouveau capitalisme, Muhammad Yunus, Le livre de poche 2009
2. Le management entre tradition et renouvellement, Omar Aktouf, Gaetan Morin Editeur, 2006.

3. Agile Project Management, Jim Highsmith, Addison-Wesley,2004.

4. Vie et enseignement de Tierno Bokar (Le sage de Bandiagara), Amadou Hampaté Bâ, Edition du Seuil 1980.

5. Nation nègre et Culture, Cheikh Anta Diop, Présence Africaine 2007.

6. Animisme-Les religions païennes de l’Afrique de l’ouest, J.C. Froelich, Edition de l’Orante 1964.

7. Le Point, quatre saisons pour reconstruire, Arnaud Segla, Les édition GRENIER 2011.

Photo credit

Photo pages 6,19: Ka,

Photo page 7: Pendant Hand of Fatima,

Photo page 17:

Image page 19 : Fotolia_6025702_XS




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